Cruise I report

[Reprinted from Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1905-1916, and Reports on Special Researches. By L. A. Bauer, with W. J. Peters, J. A. Fleming, J. P. Ault, and W. F. G. Swann. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 175, vol. 3 (1917). Pages 164-165]



Plate 7

During the period August 21 to September 10, 1909, various tests and trials of the vessel were made in Long Island Sound and Gardiners Bay, and some alterations to machinery were effected at New London, Connecticut; the Carnegie left the latter place on September 11. The swing observations for the purpose of testing the absence of observable deviations were made in Gardiners Bay from August 31 to September 2. W. J. Peters, who had been in charge of the Galilee during Cruises II and III, was placed in command of the Carnegie. He was assisted by J. P. Ault, magnetician; C. C. Craft, surgeon and observer; E. Kidson and R. R. Tafel, observers; and D. F. Smith, chief engineer. The sailing staff consisted of C.E. Littlefield, sailing master; 2 watch officers; 8 seamen; 1 mechanic, and 2 cooks. During the trial period of the installations on the Carnegie in Long Island Sound and on the trip to St. John's, the Department was fortunate in securing also the temporary services of Carl D. Smith, expert in gas engines. The Director accompanied the vessel on the trip from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Falmouth, England. (For views referring to Cruise I, see pl. 7, Figs. 3-5.)

Encountering headwinds and calms, the Carnegie arrived at St. John's, Newfoundland, on September 25, entering the harbor with her own power. After the completion of the shore work at St. John's, the vessel left on October 2, bound for Falmouth. The passage, in general, was rough, westerly gales being an almost daily experience; still the trip was made in less than 12 days, the average daily run being 159 nautical miles. Magnetic observations were secured on every day but one. On October 18 the vessel was swung outside of Falmouth Harbor, the results confirming those at Gardiners Bay and proving most satisfactorily that non-magnetic conditions had, indeed, been secured at the various positions for the instruments. The results were also in excellent agreement with those derived from the Rucker and Thorpe magnetic survey of the British Isles, when referred to date of observation with the aid of the records of the Falmouth Magnetic Observatory. This Observatory rendered valuable assistance in various ways.

Both at St. John's and Falmouth the Carnegie was visited by eminent persons. The Governor and the Premier of Newfoundland made special visits, and at Falmouth official visits and inspections were made by the late Sir Arthur Rucker and Professor Arthur Schuster, both at the time members of the Advisory Council of the Department, as also by Commander Chetwynd, superintendent of the Compass Department of the British Admiralty. Special courtesies were extended to the vessel at both ports. As she left St. John's, messages of farewell and of wishes for a pleasant voyage were hoisted on H. M. S. Brilliant (Capt. Haworth Booth in command), and on Cabot Tower on Signal Hill, above the narrow entrance to the harbor.

The Carnegie left Falmouth, England, upon the completion of the work there, on November 9, 1909, and arrived at Funchal, Madeira, on November 24. Owing to the pronounced local disturbances at Funchal, no standardization observations were made. The longest passage of the Carnegie's first cruise, viz, between Funchal and Hamilton, Bermuda, was completed between December 1, 1909, and January 7, 1910, under very favorable conditions for observing. The constants of the instruments were determined at Agar's Island and Hunt's Island and the final passage of the first cruise to New York was begun on January 28, 1910. After a very stormy trip, which proved the seaworthiness of the vessel, the Carnegie came to dock in Brooklyn on February 17, 1910.

Owing to the great advantage of having a vessel requiring no deviation-correction whatsoever, and because of the perfection reached in the instruments themselves, it was possible, for the first time, to make the results known immediately upon the conclusion of a voyage. Thus the magnetic data obtained on the trip from Long Island Sound to Falmouth (September 1 – October 18) were communicated, on arrival of the vessel at Falmouth October 2, to the leading hydrographic establishments of the world, were laid before the Russian Geographic Society at Petrograd by General Rykatchew on October 27, and were published in Nature on October 28.

Errors of importance to the navigator were found on the Carnegie's first cruise. Thus, along the track followed by the Atlantic liners from England to a point off Newfoundland, the magnetic charts, in general, showed too large westerly declination (variation of the compass), the error reaching nearly a degree. From there to Long Island the charts gave systematically too small westerly declination or variation of the compass, by amounts reaching [1.5 degrees] in the maximum. Owing to the peculiar and systematic nature of the errors, their effect was always to set a vessel toward Sable Island or Newfoundland, when her course had to be shaped entirely by compass and log, as is the case in time of fog or cloud. Some of the skilled captains of our ocean liners had suspected the possibility of such errors, but the Carnegie definitely proved and published the fact and revealed the cause. For long stretches on other portions of the cruise, systematic and, hence, cumulative errors were disclosed, the mariners' charts of the compass direction being found in error at times as much as [2 degrees] to [2.5 degrees].

The chart errors in magnetic dip amounted to [1.5 degrees] to [2.5 degrees], and in the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic force the error at times reached nearly one-tenth part. The errors found in the three magnetic elements were partly due to errors in the assumed values of the secular variation.

The total length of Cruise I was 9,600 nautical miles; the time at sea (not counting stoppages at ports) was 96 days; hence, the average day's run was 100 miles. (See abstract of log and summary, pp. 330-332.)