Cruise III report

[Reprinted from Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1905-1916, and Reports on Special Researches. By L. A. Bauer, with W. J. Peters, J. A. Fleming, J. P. Ault, and W. F. G. Swann. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 175, vol. 3 (1917). Pages170-171]



Upon the return of the Carnegie from her long circumnavigation cruise (Cruise II) arrangements were promptly made for the necessary repairs, required chiefly on account of dry rot. At the same time some alterations in the interior arrangements of the vessel were made. The stone ballast, previously used, was replaced by lead ballast. The refrigerating plant, oil engine, and producer-gas engine were also overhauled, and some improvements were effected. The repairs and alterations were made at Hoboken, New Jersey, by Tietjen and Lang, under the direct supervision of W. J. Peters, as representative of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism.

Meanwhile, plans had been made for a cruise, under the charge of W. J. Peters, chief of party, to Hudson Bay in a chartered vessel, the George B. Cluett, belonging to the Grenfell Association. Accordingly, on June 1, 1914, the command of the Carnegie was transferred to J. P. Ault, who has carried out the cruises of the vessel since that date. After the Director had made his inspection of the vessel, and had given the final instructions regarding the cruise and the program of work, the Carnegie left Brooklyn, on June 8, 1914, direct for Hammerfest, Norway, with the following personnel aboard: J. P. Ault, magnetician and in command of vessel; H. M. W. Edmonds, magnetician and surgeon; H. F. Johnston and I. A. Luke, observers; N. Meisenhelter, meteorological observer and clerk; R. E. Storm, mechanical engineer; J. Sahlberg, J. Johnson, and T. Pedersen, watch officers; C. Heckendorn, mechanic; 8 seamen, 2 cooks, and 2 cabin boys; 22 persons in all. Martin Clausen, who had served faithfully and efficiently, first as third and later as second and first watch officer on the previous cruises, on May 17, during shore leave, unfortunately met with an accident, and died on May 24. On May 27 John Sahlberg was appointed first watch officer in his stead.

Plate 16
Plate 19

From Brooklyn, the Carnegie followed a course practically due east along the parallel of [41 degrees] north to about [53 degrees] west longitude, and thence practically in a direct line to Hammerfest. A landfall was made in the vicinity of the Faroes on June 27. Hammerfest was reached on July 3, after a cruise of 4,152 nautical miles. In addition to the usual stations occupied at Hammerfest for the purpose of determining the instrumental constants, observations were secured in the neighborhood, at five additional stations, for the purpose of selecting a suitable place in the harbor to swing the vessel, and thus test anew the absence of ship deviations at the mounts of the magnetic instruments. Swings of vessel were secured on July 15, 16, and 18, with satisfactory results for both horizontal intensity and inclination, as also for declination, due account being taken of the small horizontal intensity (0.1 c.g.s.) at this high magnetic latitude. These tests showed once more, as in the previous cruises, that there are no deviations of sufficient magnitude to be taken into account. (See Pl. 16, Figs. 2 and 3, and Pl. 19, Fig. 3.)

On July 25 the Carnegie left Hammerfest, bound this time for Reykjavik, Iceland, the commander's instructions being to proceed as far north as ice conditions permitted, without endangering the safety of the vessel. The following interesting extract is taken from his report, dated Reykjavik, August 27, 1914:

"After leaving Hammerfest it was planned to make a short trip into the Barents Sea towards Nova Zembla, but, head winds being encountered, the course was shaped for Spitzbergen. We were becalmed 2 days off Bear Island, after which fair winds prevailed until July 31, when ice was sighted about 30 miles south of South Cape, the southernmost point of Spitzbergen. A few hours later we were headed off by the solid ice-pack, but the western edge of the pack could be seen and we knew that by standing to the westward it would be possible to clear it. This flow did not extend far into the sea west of Spitzbergen, having drifted down from Stor Fiord to the eastward of Spitzbergen. Standing to the westward, we cleared the ice, and, being favored with fair winds and good weather, continued northward.

"On August 2, all plans were made to swing ship the next day north of latitude [80 degrees], the engine being in running order. That night the southwesterly wind increased to a gale, making it necessary for us to heave-to and try to get south, as the solid polar ice-pack was only about 50 miles to the northward. Our farthest north, therefore, was latitude [79 degrees 52.3 minutes]. After 4 days of head winds we again had favorable winds, but for 4 days we saw nothing of the Sun, and consequently secured no magnetic-declination observations. Off the northeast coast of Iceland another head wind was encountered, which lasted 7 days.

"On August 21, the day of the eclipse, we had our first clear weather for 2 weeks and had a fine view of the eclipse, getting numerous photographs and noting times of contact. From there to Reykjavik, where we arrived on August 24, the trip was without incident, with the exception of 2 days of head winds, just before entering the harbor."

On account of local disturbances in the general neighborhood of Reykjavik, it was not deemed worth while to attempt swings until after leaving Reykjavik. Various shore stations were occupied, as also Dr. Angenheister's station of 1910. The necessary shore observations and standardizations of the ocean instruments having been completed, the Carnegie sailed from Reykjavik on September 13, bound for Greenport, Long Island. She arrived at the latter port on October 12; after the completion of the shore and harbor observations, both in terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity, she proceeded to Brooklyn and was berthed at Beard's Yacht Basin on October 21. (See Pl. 16, Fig. 5.) The Carnegie, on this cruise, thus reached a high northerly latitude and secured a valuable series of observations in a region of high magnetic latitude. The largest value of the magnetic inclination was [81.3 dgrees], the horizontal intensity at this point being 0.082 of a c. g. s. unit. The total length of the cruise was 9,560 miles, the average day's run being 114 miles.

As evidence of the promptness with which the results of the magnetic observations obtained on board the Carnegie may be made known, the following facts are cited: The values of the magnetic declination (the variation of the compass, as the mariners call it) obtained on the portion of the cruise from Long Island Sound to Hammerfest, June 10 to July 2, 1914, were printed in the number of the Journal of Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity which was issued on September 1, 1914; the values observed from Hammerfest to Reykjavik, July 26 to August 23, 1914, were received at Washington on September 21, and those from Reykjavik to Greenport, September 15 to October 11, on October 16. The values of the other magnetic elements (inclination and intensity) were received at Washington at the same time as the declination values.

In general it was found that, for nearly the entire cruise from Long Island Sound to Hammerfest, and thence to Reykjavik, the chart values of west compass-direction were too low, as compared with the values observed aboard the Carnegie, by amounts reaching nearly [4 degrees] for one chart. The general result found on this cruise was thus in entire agreement with that announced for the first cruise of the Carnegie, New York to Falmouth, England, in 1909.

As in previous cruises, much interest was shown in the work of the Carnegie and many courtesies were extended at the ports visited. (For abstracts of log and summary, see pp. 348-349.)