[Reprinted from Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1905-1916, and Reports on Special Researches. By L. A. Bauer, with W. J. Peters, J. A. Fleming, J. P. Ault, and W. F. G. Swann. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 175, vol. 3 (1917). Pages 165-170]
CRUISE II, JUNE 1910 TO DECEMBER 1913.
The alterations and additions found desirable as the result of the first cruise were completed in time to permit the Carnegie to set out from Brooklyn upon a three-years' circumnavigation cruise on June 20, 1910, under the command of W. J. Peters. In connection with these alterations, which were almost wholly in the auxiliary propulsion plant and its general arrangement, acknowledgment must be made of the cordial and effective assistance rendered by the architect of the Carnegie, H. J. Gielow; by the constructing firm, the Tebo Yacht Basin Company, then under the management of Wallace Downey; by C. D. Smith and W. C. Bauer, consulting engineers; by James Craig, Jr., the builder of the engine; and by D. F. Smith, the engineer-in-charge.
The Carnegie first proceeded to Greenport, Long Island, and swung ship in Gardiners Bay on June 22, 23, and 25, at the same place as in the preceding year. She was visited and inspected at Greenport by President Woodward in company with the Director. Having completed the determinations of instrumental constants, course was set on June 29 for Vieques, Porto Rico, via latitude [34 degrees] north and longitude [46 degrees] west. After an unusually favorable passage, during which observations of the three magnetic elements were possible on all but two days, Vieques was reached on July 24. Through the courtesy of Superintendent O.H. Tittmann, of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, opportunity was afforded, at this point, to compare the Carnegie magnetic instruments with the standards of the Vieques Magnetic Observatory, the local observer, G. Hartnell, assisting in every way. The anchorage at Vieques was exposed, so, while the observations were being made at this place, the vessel anchored at Culebra Island, and the observers lived ashore. Upon completion of the comparisons, the vessel returned to Vieques to take on the observers, and then, having made magnetic observations at the Culebra station for secular-variation data, the expedition proceeded to Porto Rico, where valuable assistance was rendered by Commodore Karl Rohrer, of the United States Naval Station. The Carnegie left San Juan, Porto Rico, for Para, Brazil, where she arrived September 24, 1910, having encountered unusually favorable conditions for magnetic work. Upon completion of the shore work at Pinheiro, the magnetic station near Para, the Carnegie left on October 15, 1910, and arrived at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 2, 1910, the voyage having been made under very favorable observing conditions. Intercomparisons of barometer standards were carried out at the Rio de Janeiro Observatory through the courtesy of Director Morize, who also rendered the Carnegie's scientific staff valuable aid in other ways. Upon the completion of the usual harbor intercomparisons of land and ship instruments and swing observations on December 23 and 24, the Carnegie sailed on December 29 for Montevideo and Buenos Aires. (For view of shore work at Rio de Janeiro, see Pl. 19, Fig. 1.)
No land observations were made at Montevideo, at which place the Carnegie arrived on January 14, 1911. After a short delay by storm she proceeded to Buenos Aires, arriving there January 17. The observing conditions between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires were very good, and numerous observations were obtained. The comparisons of ship and land instruments, as well as the comparisons of the Argentine magnetic standards with those of the Department, were carried out at the magnetic observatory of the Meteorological Service of Argentina at Pilar, Cordoba. Barometer comparisons were also made at the office of the Meteorological Service in Buenos Aires. Acknowledgment is made here of the cordial cooperation and effective aid received from Director W. G. Davis and the observer-in-charge at Pilar, L. G. Schultz.
The Carnegie sailed from Buenos Aires on February 14; but on account of adverse winds and tidal conditions, together with the loss of an anchor, subsequently recovered, she did not get out of the Rio de la Plata into the open sea until the 21st. Owing to this delay and to foggy weather in the vicinity of Tristan da Cunha, it was found impracticable to stop at this island, as had been planned, so that practically a great-circle course was followed between Buenos Aires and Cape Town. This portion of the cruise was very successful and numerous magnetic observations were made, despite the foggy conditions prevailing during a part of the time. Cape Town was reached March 20. Intercomparisons of the land and sea instruments, as well as comparisons with the magnetic outfits of Professors J. C. Beattie and J. T. Morrison, were secured at Valkenberg, near Cape Town. Barometer comparisons were made with the standards of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope. At Cape Town Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds, surgeon and magnetician, and Observer H. F. Johnston joined the vessel. Dr. C. C. Craft, who had been surgeon and magnetic observer on board the Carnegie since the initiation of her work, was relieved of sea duty at Cape Town to return to the Office, owing to the impaired condition of his eyes.
Upon the completion of the observations at Cape Town, where Doctors Beattie, Dodds, and Hough rendered much valuable aid, the Carnegie left for Colombo on April 26, arriving there June 7, 1911. The course from Cape Town was made for St. Paul Island, and thence directly for Colombo. This passage of the cruise was accomplished with cloudy weather and heavy seas during the easterly course, and under fine conditions during the northerly course. Observations were made nearly every day. At Colombo the Director joined the vessel for the purpose of a general inspection trip, for consultation with the commander as to the details of the work, and for discussion regarding such alterations as might be deemed advisable for further improvement. Observer E. Kidson, who had been on duty aboard the Carnegie since the initiation of her work in 1909, was relieved at Colombo of sea duty, and directed to proceed at once to Australia, there to take up magnetic-survey work on land. Numerous courtesies were extended to the Carnegie staff by the officials at Colombo.
Having completed the intercomparisons of the land and sea instruments at Colombo, and of the barometric standards at the Meteorological Observatory, the Carnegie set sail on July 6, 1911, for Port Louis, Mauritius Island, with the Director aboard, arriving there August 5, on schedule time. With the exception of a few days this portion of the cruise was made under very favorable conditions. Valuable data, both with regard to the distribution of the magnetic elements and their secular changes, were secured, the course to Mauritius being deflected to the southward in order to intersect the track of the Gauss. On this portion, also, the 1911 track of the Carnegie northward to Colombo from St. Paul Island was crossed, and thus valuable opportunity was afforded for testing the accuracy of her work, as well as of the chart errors previously found. The results of these tests were very satisfactory. Intercomparisons of land and sea instruments, as well as a valuable intercomparison of the standards of the Department and those of the Royal Alfred Observatory, were secured. Much interest was shown in the work of the Carnegie by the Governor of Mauritius and other officials. Director Walter, of the Observatory, rendered valuable aid in the instrumental comparisons. (See Pl. 15, Figs. 1 and 2.)
The land work being completed, the Carnegie left Port Louis, bound for Batavia via Colombo, on August 16, 1911, the Director continuing with the vessel. A short stop was made at Colombo, during September 10 to 15, and there the Director left the party to visit magnetic organizations and observatories in India, the East Indies, and China. Excellent conditions prevailed between Mauritius and Colombo, and numerous observations were made. After a 43-day cruise from Colombo, during which the desired observations were secured, Batavia was reached on October 27, 1911. The course from Mauritius carried the vessel first to the westward of the Seychelles Islands into the western part of the Arabian Sea, where the agonic line was located by two widely separated crossings, and across the tracks of the principal steamship lines, thence back to Colombo, and from there to Batavia. Intercomparisons of the sea and land instruments, as well as valuable intercomparisons of the standards of the Department and those of the Royal Meteorological and Magnetic Observatory, were secured at Batavia, through the effective assistance of Director van Bemmelen. (For view of work in atmospheric electricity, see Pl. 15, Fig. 4.)
From Batavia the Carnegie sailed on November 21, 1911, bound for Manila by a circuitous route, arranged so as to cover the eastern part of the Indian Ocean. The course followed was south-southwest in the Indian Ocean to south latitude [30.8 degrees] and east longitude [89.4 degrees]; thence it extended to [37.5 degrees] south, in east longitude [95.5 degrees]. From this point a general northeasterly course was followed into the China Sea and the North Pacific. The Carnegie reached Manila, Philippine Islands, on February 2, 1912, having been out 73[1/2] days from Batavia, and having covered a distance of 8,291 miles; the conditions for observations were good.
At the new Manila Magnetic Observatory, situated at Antipolo, intercomparisons of magnetic instruments were made with the standards of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and with those of the Antipolo Magnetic Observatory. These comparisons were much facilitated through the cordial cooperation of Director Algue of the Manila Observatory and his chief assistant at the Antipolo Observatory, M. Saderra Maso, and the Director of Coast Surveys at Manila, P. A. Welker, at the time. Upon the completion of the land work and of minor repairs in dry dock, the Carnegie left Manila on March 24, 1912, pursuing a northeasterly course off the Luchu Islands, and thence practically due east to north latitude [30 degrees] and east longitude [166 degrees]. Thence the course was, in general, southward to Suva, Fiji Islands, where the vessel, after having been considerably delayed by head winds, arrived June 7, 75 days out from Manila. The total distance covered from Manila to Suva was 8,158 miles. The track of the Galilee was crossed several times, and thus valuable secular-variation data were obtained. Effective assistance was rendered the Carnegie at Suva by various officials.
Upon completion of the land work at Suva, including a reoccupation of the Galilee station of 1906, the Carnegie left for Papeete, Tahiti, June 30, 1912. The departure from Suva was delayed by contrary winds blowing through the narrow entrance. A course was steered along the parallel [30 degrees] south, passing between the outward and homeward-bound passages of the Galilee's last cruise. From near Easter Island a northerly course was followed to the equator; thence the course was westerly, and then southwest to Tahiti. On crossing the equator, the ship was swung under favorable conditions for magnetic inclination and intensity. The observations, made on the various headings in the two observing domes, again showed smaller differences among themselves than the general accuracy of sea observations.
Papeete, the port of Tahiti, was reached September 11, 1912; here the acting governor and other officials took great interest in the Carnegie and her work. On October 15, after completion of the land work, the vessel sailed for Coronel, Chile, where she arrived on November 25. The magnetic station established at this place in 1907 by the Explorer of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, was reoccupied. After the necessary land observations had been made for the determination of constants and intercomparisons of instruments, the Carnegie proceeded to Talcahuano on December 4. At this port, through the courtesy of the Chilean naval officials, particularly Admiral Francisco Neff, the government dry-dock was used for dry-docking the vessel and carrying out necessary repairs. While at Talcahuano opportunity was given Observers Hewlett and Johnston to visit Dr. Walter Knoche, in charge of the meteorological work for the Chilean Government at Santiago, and to discuss with him methods of work in atmospheric electricity at sea. Subsequently Dr. Knoche visited the Carnegie at Talcahuano and kindly made some further suggestions.
Leaving Talcahuano December 19, 1912, the Carnegie proceeded next to Stanley, Falkland Islands, arriving there January 27, 1913. A northwest course was followed to about [26 degrees] south latitude and [95 degrees] west longitude, thence southwest to about [40 degrees] south latitude and [107 degrees] west longitude, and thence around Cape Horn to Stanley. Winds of great strength prevailing for days at this port, considerable delay was experienced in the completion of the work, which included a reoccupation of the magnetic station given in the 'British Admiralty List.' Dr. Edmonds was relieved of ocean duty at Stanley in order to take charge of a land expedition to Hudson Bay, and Dr. C. C. Craft was assigned as surgeon and magnetic observer in his place. Acknowledgments are due the Governor of the Falklands, Honorable W. L. Allerdyce, and other officials and persons at Stanley for numerous kindnesses shown.
The Carnegie sailed from Stanley on February 22, 1913, bound for St. Helena, following a great-circle route to [46.5 degrees] south latitude and [1 degree] east longitude. Along this portion of the passage a number of large icebergs were seen. The 1911 track of the Carnegie was crossed, as well as that of the Gauss while on her Antarctic cruise. The Carnegie was swung at sea on March 21, and it was once more found that the magnetic observations (magnetic inclination and intensity), made on the various headings, agreed with each other within the observational errors. Arriving at Jamestown, St. Helena, on April 3, the stop made this time was only long enough to provision the vessel, attend to the accumulated correspondence, and dispatch the observation records to Washington. In order to make the more southerly return passage from Bahia to St. Helena before the Sun reached the summer solstice, as had been planned, the usual shore work was postponed, and St. Helena was left on April 9, the course being set direct for Bahia. En route, observations of the magnetic declination were made during a complete swing of the vessel, confirming the absence of possible deviations greater than the error of observation.
Bahia was reached on April 24. As the Brazilian station at Bahia was no longer suitable for secular-variation purposes, a new magnetic station was established on Jaburu Point (Pl. 19, Fig. 2) where intercomparisons were made ashore of all instruments used aboard. Observer Schmitt joined the Carnegie at this port in place of Observer Johnston, who had been assigned to take charge of important land magnetic work in Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, and Brazil.
After completion of the land work, the Carnegie sailed from Bahia on May 19 for St. Helena, following a south and east course to about [33 degrees] south latitude and [8 degrees] west longitude, and sailing thence north to St. Helena, where she anchored off Jamestown, June 23. On this passage considerable cloudy and stormy weather was experienced. Complete intercomparisons of all instruments were now made ashore, and one magnetic station of the Gauss expedition was reoccupied. The Governor of St. Helena (Major H.W. Cordeau), at both visits of the Carnegie, evinced his interest and extended various courtesies.
Leaving St. Helena on July 21, a north-northwest course was followed to about [30 degrees] north latitude and [40 degrees] west longitude, and then north and northeast courses to Falmouth, where the vessel arrived September 12. On August 15 and 18, magnetic observations were obtained on 8 equidistant headings of the ship, the previous conclusions regarding absence of appreciable ship deviations being again confirmed.
During this passage from St. Helena to Falmouth, the Carnegie on August 10 crossed her track of 1909. A comparison of the two values of the magnetic declination obtained at the point of intersection, one in 1909 and the other in 1913, showed that the north end of the compass needle had shifted westward at an average annual rate of 7 minutes; this is in the right direction to account to some extent for chart errors. A reliable value of the secular change, derived from sea observations for an interval of not quite four years, can only be obtained by means of the refined methods and instruments in use on the Carnegie.
At Falmouth, besides the usual shore comparisons of instruments, the stations established by the Carnegie during her first call at this port in October 1909, at Trefusis Point and St. Anthony, were reoccupied for the purpose of determining the secular change in the magnetic elements since 1909. For the same purpose magnetic observations were made at the two nearest stations, Truro and Porthallow, of the Magnetic Survey of Great Britain by Professors Rucker and Thorpe; thus additional data for connecting the latter survey with the work of the Carnegie were obtained. The vessel was also swung a second time in Falmouth Bay, complete magnetic observations being made over the same area where similar work was done in 1909; the 1909 results were confirmed. In connection with the Carnegie's work at Falmouth, acknowledgment should be made of the aid received from Doctors Glazebrook and Shaw, and Messrs. W. L. Fox, J. B. Philipps, and Spry.
October 15, the Carnegie left Falmouth on the last passage of the long cruise begun in June 1910. On account of head winds she put in at New London, Connecticut, on December 14, and was towed to Greenport on December 15. After reoccupying the repeat stations at Greenport and Shelter Island, the Carnegie left on December 18 and was berthed at Beard's Yacht Basin, Brooklyn, on December 19. The Director inspected the vessel here, and conferred with W. J. Peters, commander, regarding the repair work required after the three-year continuous cruise of the Carnegie.
The scientific personnel on this cruise, besides the Director, who was with the vessel from June to September 1911, consisted of the following persons: W. J. Peters, in command of vessel; C. C. Craft, surgeon and observer to April 1911 and from February 1913; H. M. W. Edmonds, surgeon and magnetician, from March 1911 to February 1913; E. Kidson, observer, to June 1911; H. D. Frary, observer, to September 1912; C. W. Hewlett, observer, from September 1912; H. F. Johnston, observer, from March 1911 to May 1913; H. R. Schmitt, observer, from May 1913; C. R. Carroll, meteorological observer and clerk, to September 1911; N. Meisenhelter, meteorological observer and clerk, from February 1912. (For view of the Carnegie's personnel, see Pl. 15, Fig. 3.)
At the various ports of call the Carnegie's scientific staff received most cordial assistance from various diplomatic and consular officers besides from those already mentioned. Besides the usual observations for geographic position and of the magnetic elements, atmospheric-electric observations, as opportunity afforded, were made on the Carnegie by Observers Kidson and Johnston. Atmospheric-pressure observations have been carried out and various improvements in the method of observations were effected. Observations for atmospheric-refraction effects at sea were also made.
The total length of Cruise II was 92,829 nautical miles; the time at sea (not counting stops at ports) was 798 days; hence, the average day's run was 116 miles. (See abstracts of log, pp. 333-347, and summary, p. 347.)