Cruise III report

[Reprinted from Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1905-1916, and Reports on Special Researches. By L. A. Bauer, with W. J. Peters, J. A. Fleming, J. P. Ault, and W. F. G. Swann. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 175, vol. 3 (1917). Pages 12-14]



Plate 2

Between November 1 and December 22, 1906, various shore observations, harbor swings, and investigations were made at San Diego and the vessel was overhauled and outfitted preparatory to her third cruise. During November 16-22, Mr. Peters conferred with the Director at Washington, and received final instructions for the forthcoming cruise. December 22 the Galilee set sail from San Diego and entered upon 'Cruise III,' the scientific party consisting of the following persons: W. J. Peters, in command; Observers J. C. Pearson and D. C. Sowers; and Dr. G. Peterson, surgeon and recorder. Captain J. T. Hayes, as heretofore, was sailing-master. Mr. Pearson was relieved by Observer P. H. Dike at Sitka, Alaska, July 31, 1907. (See Plate 2, Figs. 1 and 2.)

The port of Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands, was reached on January 18, 1907. No harbor swing of the vessel being possible here, the Galilee, upon completion of the shore work, proceeded on January 24 to Tahiti, arriving there January 31. During a stay of 19 days at this port, harbor swings and land observations were carried out in detail. The next stop was made at Apia, Samoan Islands, where, between March 3 and 14, various standardizations and comparisons of instruments were made at the Apia Geophysical Observatory. This was the second time that these highly essential observations and checks on the instrumental constants of the ship had been obtained at this important observatory. The observer-in-charge, Dr. G. Angenheister, as well as the retiring observer-in-charge, Dr. F. Linke, rendered the Galilee all necessary assistance, hereby gratefully acknowledged. Harbor swings of the Galilee, however, could not be attempted at this port.

Leaving Apia March 14, Yap Island was made on April 14. Here various observations consumed 9 days. Sailing from Yap Island April 23, Shanghai was reached on May 8, where the principal stop was made. Comparisons of the Galilee instruments were made with the standard instruments of the Zikawei Observatory, Father J. de Moidrey, S. J., in charge of the magnetic work, furnishing every facility possible, for which our hearty thanks are due. Swings of vessel, on account of high tides and absence of motive power on the Galilee, could not be made here in port, but had to be undertaken directly after leaving Shanghai on May 31, in the mouth of the Yangtse River, where they were secured with great difficulty and delaying the vessel until June 4.

From Shanghai Mr. Peters was directed to proceed due east towards Midway, putting in there, if conditions did not make the entry to the harbor hazardous with a sailing vessel, and from thence to make Sitka, in order to cover this passage during as favorable a part of the year as possible. Tempestuous weather, however, was encountered on almost the entire trip, blowing the vessel out of her set course, preventing swings, and rendering impossible magnetic-declination observations because of absence of sun or stars, so that the course and program of work outlined could be followed only approximately. For about 750 nautical miles from Shanghai the course was practically the same as that of the Challenger, and no landing on Midway Island could be safely attempted. After following an easterly course in general to longitude [181.5 degrees] east, latitude [37 degrees] north, course was laid directly for Sitka, the Galilee entering this harbor July 14, 1907, and being swung on July 16 to 19. In spite of the bad weather, the trip from Shanghai of 5,507 nautical miles was made in 41 days, averaging about 134 nautical miles per day.

The Director met the Galilee at Sitka on July 28, inspected the work and instrumental outfits, and discussed with the commander the future work. Two new instruments were introduced in the work, viz, the newly received and improved sea dip-circle 189, and a new Ritchie liquid compass fitted with sea deflector No. 2 arranged to take the place of sea deflector No. 1 for determining directly the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, as also the magnetic declination. Furthermore, a spare gimbal stand was mounted for the purpose of attempting certain atmospheric-electric observations. J. C. Pearson having been continuously on sea duty as magnetic observer from January 1, 1906, to July 31, 1907, was relieved and assigned to magnetic-survey duty in Alaska, Observer P. H. Dike being assigned to his place on board the Galilee. Mr. Dike, in addition to taking part in the magnetic work, undertook the experimental work in atmospheric electricity, for which he had specially qualified himself by work abroad and by further investigations at Washington.

The requisite instrumental determinations and comparisons having been completed at the Sitka Magnetic Observatory, the Galilee put to sea once more on August 10, and arrived at Honolulu on August 28, having had a favorable passage. Swing observations were made on August 29, at Honolulu, and the vessel was overhauled and re-outfitted before continuing the cruise. After the necessary instrumental determinations and comparisons at the Honolulu Magnetic Observatory were secured, the Galilee left Honolulu September 26 and reached Jaluit, Marshall Islands, October 21, where connection was made with the Galilee observations at this port in 1906, harbor swings being made on October 24.

Having completed the shore and harbor work, the Galilee set sail from Jaluit on November 5 for Port Lyttelton, New Zealand. November 11 found the vessel becalmed in the Lagoon of Jaluit and in a very dangerous position because of the many reefs and the lack of any auxiliary power. For 6 days she had lain thus, being aground on a reef at one time for a period of several hours, when the opportune arrival of the German mail steamer offered a means of towing out to sea. Course was then laid on November 1, directly for Lyttelton via Cook's Strait. In this passage of the cruise the lack of auxiliary power was again sorely felt, when for 4 days every effort had to be made to keep clear of the New Hebrides Islands, towards which the vessel was carried by currents and contrary winds. Port Lyttelton was reached late in the afternoon on the day before Christmas. Lieutenant Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition in the Nimrod was found to be just in the midst of final preparations for departure. This fact, in connection with the holiday season, delayed work until the very end of the month. The New Zealand government, through the premier, the Rt. Hon. Sir Joseph G. Ward, and the Port Lyttelton Harbor Board, extended to the Galilee party every possible courtesy and aid, giving not only free wharfage but also transportation facilities on the railways and the service of a tug for use in swinging; the facilities of the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory were also put at the disposal of the Galilee party. Dr. C. Coleridge Farr, of Canterbury College, and Mr. H. F. Skey, director of the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory, rendered the party every possible assistance. Grateful acknowledgments are due the New Zealand government and these gentlemen.


Plate 2

Upon completion of the instrumental comparisons at the Christchurch Observatory, and of the shore observations, the Galilee was swung on January 2, 1908, off New Brighton Beach. Departure from Port Lyttelton was taken on January 17. The course followed was practically along the parallel of [43 degrees] south to about longitude [108 degrees] west, from which point the course was generally northeast until arrival in Callao Bay, Peru, on March 10. In this passage from New Zealand, violent gales were encountered between February 7 and 11, the vessel scudding at one time before the wind under bare poles, but thanks to her experienced sailing-master, Captain J. T. Hayes, she safely outrode every gale, though somewhat the worse for wear. (See Plate 2, Figs. 3-7.) At Callao a delay of some two weeks was necessary for repairs, chiefly of the rudder. The land and sea work having been completed at this port, and the Galilee having been swung on April 4, she entered on the final passage of her cruise, setting sail on April 5 for latitude [l.5 degrees] south and longitude [114 degrees] west, whence a north course was followed to latitude [12 degrees] north. From this position the track followed was almost a direct one to about [31 degrees] north latitude in [137.5 degrees] west longitude, from which point course was set for the Golden Gate. San Francisco was reached on May 21, 1908, thus concluding Cruise III, begun at San Diego on December 22, 1906, and having a total length of about 36,977 nautical miles.

On Cruise III, 12 harbors were visited, at all of which extensive shore observations and intercomparisons of ship and land instruments were made; in 3 of the harbors swinging ship could not be undertaken, either for want of tug facilities or because of insufficient space. 20 primary land stations were established; also, in the neighborhood of the primary stations, 20 secondary stations for purposes of intercomparison and standardization of ship's instruments. While at sea during Cruise III, in addition to the course observations, which were made as frequently as weather and sea conditions permitted, frequent swings, under sail, on 6 to 8 headings, were carried out. Astronomical observations for position, with determinations of position by dead reckoning, daily intercomparisons of 5 chronometers, and daily meteorological observations were made.

The closing shore observations were made at San Francisco, and after the swing observations on May 23, 25, and 28 were completed, the Galilee was returned to her owners on June 5, 1908. She had been in almost continuous commission since August 1905, or a period of 3 years less 2 months, during which cruises of 63,834 nautical miles were carried out with her in all parts of the Pacific Ocean, without serious mishap, and without loss of human life. For further information regarding Cruise III, the abstract of ship's log (pp. 147-154) may be consulted. The three cruises of the Galilee are shown on Plate 6.